Softball - American Games, History
Game of softball was born in the United States, which was created at the Farragut Boat Building Sports Club of Chicago, Illinois on 16 September 1887 by accident by George Hancock.
Initially there were several Yale alumni and Harvard University are listening to the final football match between Yale and Harvard at the Farragut Boat Club. After the final score was announced the victory of Yale, a Yale alumnus enthusiastically threw a boxing glove to support Harvard. With a reflex to take a stick and hit it toward the boxing glove. Seeing this gives an idea of a reporter for the Chicago Board of Trade, George Hancock. He suggested creating a game in the room with a ball made of boxing gloves that had been thrown. He took a boxing glove and tied it tightly using a rope, that resembles a ball. Then with a few pieces of chalk, Hancock marked the floor of the Farragut Boat resembles the baseball field.
As the paddle is used a broom. Teams are divided into two and Hancock shouting the words "Play Ball", then began the game with a final score of 44-40. Since the indoor version of baseball games are known. Called indoor baseball. Since the spherical shape changing. The name softball before adjusting the material used to make the ball, be the names that are used at the time the kitten ball, army ball, MUSHs ball, as well as indoor-outdoor, recreation ball, and playground ball.
At the beginning of the 20th century began playing softball as is done outdoors indoors. In 1908 an amateur organization for this new game (National Amateur Playground Ball Association of the United States) regulate this sport to be played outdoors using a larger ball. National Recreation Congress in 1923 (the National Recreation Congress) asked the commission to standardize the sport, and in 1926 the name "softball" is used even though not yet formalized.
In 1933, the first world championships held in the shadow of the Amateur Softball Association of America (Amateur Softball Association of America) which has been used as a basic rule in America. Grade softball champions for men at that time was J. L. Gills of Chicago, and champion of Great Northerns class women from the same town. Although the championship is contested are amateurs, they are usually sponsored by industry organizations in the region.
Since 1933, "softball" has become an official name. And in 1934, the establishment of common rules to standardize the regulations further provide softball. There have been many regulatory changes since then, especially in 1946, where there is a change in the number of players in a team of 10 to 9 people. To ten players called "shortfielder" at that time served as a guard outside the shallow area behind the adventure. In 1950 the distance between the pitcher's plate and home plate coupled to the son of 43 feet to 46 feet (13,114 meters).
In terms of participants, softball has grown into a major sports teams and loved. Smaller field available. Both women and men, can play it. Furthermore men beyond the age of the athlete can play as activities outside the official game as a picnic or in a social community without going through warm-up and routine exercise are needed, similar in baseball.
In the 1960s, part of the 125.000 team has registered in the Amateur Softball Association of America. And held six national championships each year. This does not include members of both men and women who competed in the unofficial competition. On the other State softball also become a popular sport both men and women young and old.
In 1949, the Canadian team, Toronto's Tip Top Tailors, won the international championship is conducted periodically by the Amateur Softball Association and is the first competition that is truly a world championship level for the son. Held in 1966 under the sponsorship of the International Softball Federation (International Softball Federation). Australia won the first championship for women in 1965.
Softball is a sport known for its football team which consists of two teams. Game of softball was born in the United States, invented by George Hancock in Chicago in 1887. Softball is a sport similar progression of the baseball or Hardball. Softball at this time from 28 to 30.5 centimeters in diameter; the ball is thrown by a pitcher (pitcher) and became the target of opposing players, namely the bat using a bat (bat). There is a team that just (defensive) and teams are hitting the (offensive). Each team competed to collect the numbers (run) in a way round the three series of markers (base) runner to touch home plate is the final mark.
There are three types of softball games:
* Fast pitch softball is a game determined by the pitcher. Pitcher throws the ball with maximum speed, similar to baseball. There are differences in style and way of throwing pitchers release the ball. The release of the ball is located below or equal than the position of the glove.
* Modified pitch softball or commonly known by the name modball. Its main purpose is to soften the rules used in the category of fast-pitch so the players that have not been accustomed to not be shocked by the rules "tight" in softball as the strike zone, the distance between the markers, the length of games and others. Speed pitch pitcher in modball is between fast and slow pitch. Rotation speed of the ball bounded by the arm over the shoulder.
* Slow pitch softball makes it easy for bats to hit the ball. Bat the ball was given continuously until the pitcher can hit the ball. Pitcher throws the ball slowly bounced. The game is often played in the social community as a competition, without being limited by age and gender.
Softball field square. Divided into regional fair (fair territory) and the foul (foul territory). Further, in the fair is divided into two parts, the inner (infield), and the outside (outfield).
Inside there are 4 markers in the region (base). Each marker is numbered counter-clockwise, starting from the early markers, called home plate, followed by the first mark, mark the second and third markers. Mark square with sides 38 cm (15 inches) is made slightly higher than ground level. The angle of the four markers forming so-called rectangular shape diamonds (diamonds).
Behind home plate are called backstop limits as far as 7.62 and 9.14 meters behind home plate.
In the softball game there is at least one person up to seven judges or referees (Umpire). There is one plate Umpire and three markers that keep the match referee. The rest of the referee to monitor the outdoor area. In fast-pitch games are judged by four referees (one plate Umpire, referee three markers).
The term for a referee is "blue", because they are always blue uniforms. The position of an umpire is standing behind the catcher and batter. Function to see the ball thrown in the direction of the pitcher to catcher does it strike or ball. The referee also supervise the game carefully to determine the events that actually happened and keep the players follow the rules. As the leader of the game is plate Umpire. Because of its nature as a leader of the game, power plate Umpire in a softball game is an absolute, Although it can protest (appealed) decision can not be contested if the protest is made a player or coach or team manager regarding adjustment, but protests can do and can be accepted if the protest do against the wrong application of rules. So there are games that can be continued with the protest (the game under protest, more can be read at Softball Game Rules issued by the ISF). a referee can eject anyone whether a player or even a coach out on the field, if according to disrupt the match referee.
Softball is played by two teams in the softball field. Each team has a minimum of 9 players and the rest are backup. The game consists of 9 rounds called the inning. In one inning, the team that competed each have a chance hit (batting) to score (runs). When the attacking team gets a turn hitting, a team's last pitcher threw the ball toward the catcher the ball at full speed so that the ball can not hit .Tim whose turn alternately one by one to hit the ball. The team is just trying to kill members of the team whose turn it is hit. The team whose turn it is hitting the opportunity 3 times to death (out) before hitting the turn replaced by the team survive.
Score or runs resulting from a runner ran over the top all the markers in a row and stepped on home plate again. Any runner who managed to surround and stepped on home plate gets one point. When the game is determined by the inning. Each team gets a turn to hit 3 times out and shut the other team 3 times out, is called an inning. In each game softball game at least 7 innings duration depending on the situation, or a long time 2 hours. After spending the inning, the team who scored (run) ever be a winner.
If the specified time in the inning is over and both teams in the state of the series, played extra innings until one team came out as winners. The condition is called a tie break, or series. At the beginning of the game, the team that became the host (home team) while the team gets a turn throwing guests (visitors) a turn hitting.
The game begins when the referee started the match and shouting "Play Ball". After waking defender entering the area of each, the battle between pitcher and hitter on the team last ball in the team whose turn it may start hitting. A pitcher standing on the plate and facing toward the catcher. Pitchers will try to throw the ball hard into catcher mitts. Throwing the ball position has a special area called the strike zone (strike zone), where the final result on the throw home plate and there is nothing more than chest height and no less than knee hitter. If the ball in the strike zone the ball is not hit by the batter, the umpire will yell "strike". And if the ball out of the strike zone, but the batter did not try to hit the ball then the referee will yell "ball". Strike zone is the zone where the ball at bat in the region. At the time of pitches, pitchers will try to make the ball strike with a vengeance in order to distress the bat hit the ball even though the ball was in the zone. So the challenge of a pitcher is throwing with high speed and with the right target.
In one team has at least one person catching the ball. Catcher is equipped with safety equipment and charge capture thrower throws the ball. Catcher helmet use (catcher mask) to protect the head and face, body armor to protect the body and leg protectors to protect the knees down. The position of catcher was squatting behind the batter. A ball pitchers and catchers are required to have good communication with cues to work off a bat. A catcher is a regulator sometimes a good strategy, because the catcher in the game can see the whole situation that happened in front of him.
In addition to pitchers and catchers, the team had 7 people stand guard (fielder) that are divided into four guards in the area (infielder) and 3 guards outside the area (outfielder). The inside of the guard marker one (first), the keeper of the two markers (second), guard between two and three markers (shortstop), and guard the three markers (third). While the guards outside there on the left (left guard), middle (middle guard), and right. All guardians (including pitcher and catcher) tried to kill 3 people opposing team's turn to hit. Since the run can only be obtained in a position to attack.
Bat the ball
Every hitter has a chance 3 times and 4 times the ball strike. 3 times a strike would create a dead-ball hitter "Strike Out". And when the ball 4 times the hitter is allowed free road markings towards one (free walk). If the batter successfully hit the ball, paddle ball will run every effort to achieve a single mark before the ball is returned or the blow was arrested by a guard marker. If the batter made it to mark a single mark before the guards catch the ball then bat the ball "safe" '. But when a guard marker quicker to catch the ball, the bat the ball "out".
There are various types of hitting. Hit, Bunt, hit and run, Steal and others. Depending on the situation that occurred at that time. Various types of hits are used according to the strategy will be pursued assault team.
The International Softball Federation
Agency is what ultimately makes the rules concerning applicable softball sports game around the world, including Indonesia at this time. The original manuscript written in English, and translated by its member states.
Establishment of the International Softball Federation, then allow the holding of matches between countries which are international. Then the championships held nationally, regionally and globally.
The International Softball Championship today is the most prestigious World Softball Championship (World Cup of Softball) organized by the Amateur Softball Association under the auspices of the International Softball Federation. ISF member countries who entered the qualifying rounds each year sends contingent to compete. After qualifying, sejumalah 6 countries will compete with each other (5 matches). And the two best teams will compete for the position of a one-game winner-winner-take-all championship.
* 2005 - Japan 3 United States 1
* 2006 - United States 5 Japan 2
* 2007 - United States 3 Japan 0
In 2007, Indonesia managed to carve history to qualify for World Cup of Softball first time. Indonesia to compete with other countries in Oklahoma City in the World Cup of Softball after successfully entering the ranks third among Asian countries in the qualification.