Chess is a mental game played by two people. Chess is a person who plays chess, both in game one on one and one against a lot of people (in informal circumstances). Before the match, chess player will choose the seed that he played chess. There are two colors that distinguish chess pawn or seed, namely black and white. Holders of the white pieces to start the first step, which in turn followed by black fruit holder by turns until the game is finished.
The game took place on the board which consists of 8 rows and 8 rows box / row are black and white (or light and dark) is Intermittent. The game begins with 16 pieces on each side, which was composed specifically lined on each side of the chess board is face to face. One can only occupy a single plot. At the leading edge of each line - there are 8 pawns, followed behind the two forts, two horses (in English called knight-warrior), two elephants (in English called the bishop-bishop), a minister or a queen or queen, as well as one king.
Before the match, chess player will choose the color of the fruit which he played. Holders of the white pieces to start the first step, which in turn followed by black fruit holder in turn. Every step may only move a pawn only (except for the castled where there are two pieces are moved). Pawn moved to vacant, or occupied by the opponent's pawn, which means catch and move the opponent's pawns of the game. There are exceptions, namely to move en passant.
Each chess piece has a unique motion as follows:
* The king can move one row in any direction. King also has a special move called the castled that also involves a fortress.
* The fort can move along the plot horizontally or vertically, but can not jump over other pieces. As has been at the top, castle castled involved in the movement.
* Elephants can move along a swath diagonally, but can not jump over other pieces.
* Queen has a combined movement of the Citadel and the Elephant.
* The horse has a similar movement letter L, which extends the two plots and a wide swath. Kudalah the only pieces that can jump over other pieces.
* Pieces can move forward (toward opponent) one plot to the plot which is not occupied. At the beginning of the movement, a pawn can move forward two plots. Also can capture the pawn pawn diagonally opposite, if the opponent's pawn is located a diagonal swath in front of him. Pion has two special gerakah, namely motion capture en passant and promotion.
Castled is a special move in chess where the King moves two plots to the Citadel in the first row, then put the fort in the last swath through the King. Castled requirements are as follows:
* Pawns King and Castle will be involved in the castled should have never moved
* There are no other pieces between the King and Castle
* The king was not in-skak, and plots through which the King is not being attacked by opponent's pawn
The following matters are misunderstandings in the castled, which should not apply:
* Pawns are involved castled fortress is under attack
* If the fort were included in the Queen's side, the plot is right next to the Citadel are not allowed in the attack
When a pawn moves forward two plots and there is a pawn of the opponent who was a plot in a row the goal, then the opponent's pawn can capture and occupy a plot which had just passed pawn (the pawn as if it moves a plot forward). However, this movement can only be done shortly after the move a pawn forward two squares, or the right opponent to make a move en passant is lost.
When a pawn has advanced to occupy the last line, together with forward movement, the pawn promoted and should be exchanged with the pawn on the desires of the player, the Queen, Fort, Elephant, Horse, or the same color. In general, a pawn promoted to queen. There are no regulations restricting selected as promotional pieces, so it is possible to have pieces that exceed the amount of time early in the game (eg, two Queen).
When the king is being attacked by one or more opponent's pawn, a situation known as a check. Players who have to move the King King on skak so as not affected. This can be done by capturing the opponent's pawn is attacked, close the opponent's attack by placing a pawn of them (if that attack the Queen, the Citadel, or the Elephant and there is a vacant plot between the king and the pawn of the opponent), or move the king to hide and that is not being was attacked. Castled King is not permitted if on skak.
The game objective is to achieve a position of checkmate. This could happen if the King is threatened and no way to escape to another plot. Not always the game ended in defeat, because it could happen anyway, or mussels in a series of events where both parties could no longer continue the game because they can not achieve checkmate. These mussels events can occur by agreement or not. One example of mussels that are not based on an agreement - but there is the eternal state of mussels. Mussels the other state is a state could, where the shift step can not step up any fruit including the King, but not in a state endangered check. In a chess match winning side usually get a value of 1, the loser 0, 0.5 is the draw.
Every chess player has a value / score called chess rating. This chess rating is a number that describes the strength of a chess player. The higher the rating, the player is likely to grow stronger. Instead of the title, rating more effectively illustrates the power of a chess player. This rating is derived from chess victories in an official match. If a chess player wins with a stronger chess player, he gets more ratings. If he loses, the rating will be reduced according to the existing formula. FIDE rating list issued by the name of the international chess ELO rating for every 2 months. PERCASI being issued National Rating List (DRN) every 6 months (each January 1 and July 1).
ELO Rating of the World still held GM Gary Kasparov (Russia) in 2841. Currently Kasparov had resigned from the world of chess. Perched on rank 1 of the current FIDE list was GM Magnus Carlsen (Norway) in 2813. Followed by GM Veselin Topalov (Bulgaria) in 2812 ranked second.
Indonesia being the highest chess ELO Ratings today is GM Utut Adianto (2548) and both GM Susanto Megaranto (2527).
Opening chess is the first stage in a game of chess. There are several dozen different opening, hundreds of variety names. A series of the opening movement that is considered standard (often cataloged in reference books like the Encyclopedia of Chess Openings) is referred to as "book moves" or simply "book". The new series in the opening movement is referred to as "opening a new theoretical".
Opening chess is a strategy to gain and very decisive victory in the face of attack your opponent's defense.
The word is used when opening a new White House after the step of opening the existing name for example: 1. f4 .. (Opening Bird ...); 1. e4 e5. 2. Gc4 .. (The opening of the Elephant King), and others.
Defence said after the step is used when a new Black was given the name of the opening, for example: 1. e4 Kf6 ... (Alekhine Defense ...); 1. d4 Kf6. 2. ... c4 c5 (Benoni Defense), and others.
1. Reply Gambit Albin. 1. d4 d5. 2. c4 e5. 3. dxe5 d4. description: Work hard to seize the initiative which often produces the opposite castled shapes
2. Benko Gambit. 1. d4 Kf6. 2. c4 c5. 3. d5 b5. 4. cxb5. description: Black victim of a pawn in order to exert pressure on the wing-minister.
3. Blackmar Diemer Gambit. 1. d4 d5 2. e4 dxe4 3. Kc3 Kf6 4. f3. description: Category sharp, somewhat risky, White played the victim for fruit development.
4. Budapest Gambit. 1. d4 Kf6 2. c4 e5. description: Black almost always able to regain the pawn gambitnya. But the time spent to reclaim the Black pawn it, causing the White slightly superior.
5. Danish Gambit. 1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Gc4. description: Gambit dangerous, deceitful, but Black will easily compensate for as long as it returns the gambit pawn at the right time.
6. Evans Gambit. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kc6 3. Gc4 Gc5 4. b4. description: The opening suitable for those who love and understand tactical play opens.
7. Gambit King. 1. e4 e5 2. f4. description: The Battle sharply since the beginning of the game
8. Latvian Gambit. 1. e4 c4 2. Kf3 f5. description: a sharp counter attack but had no good reputation.
9. Morra Gambit. 1. e4 c5 2. d4 cxd4 3. c3. description: Gambit allows White to avoid the hazardous main line in Sicily.
10. Gambit Minister. 1. d4 d5 2. c4. description: Opening is popular with active game for both sides.
1. Alekhine Defense. 1. e4 Kf6. description: Black Putiy seeks to promote the center pawns far ahead, then block it and then destroy it.
2. Benoni Defense. 1. d4 Kf6. 2. c4 c5. description: Black wing-shape control system the minister with a majority of pawns and pressure throughout the half-open lane and mastery of the King fianseto diagonal elephant.
3. Bogo Indian Defense. 1. d4 Kf6 2. c4 e6 3. Kf3 Gb4. caption: Defense solid in Black want to quickly swap the Elephant King.
4. Caro-Kann Defense. 1. e4 c5. description: Black defend healthy for the delay the fight until the position is solid.
5. Scandinavian Defense. 1. e4 c5. description: This defense is suitable for recording who want a complete defense without much studying variation 2. exd5 Mxd5 causes pawn structure similar to Caro-Kann
6. Dutch Defense. 1. d4 f5. description: Black to prevent White playing c4 and arrange the position of the center pawns.
7. French Defence. 1. e4 e6. caption: Defense strong and solid that has a reputation.
8. Opening Italy / Giuco Piano. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kc6 3. Gc4 Gc5. description: White puncture delay before supported by c3 d4 in order to obtain two pawns in the center-field
9. Grunfeld Defence. 1. d4 Kf6 2. c4 g6 3. Kc3 d5. description: Based hypermodern theory, a broad central pawn can become the target or as an advantage.
10. Indian Defence King. 1.d4 Kf6 2. c4 g6 3. Kc3 Gg7. description: Black White let the form sides pawns in center field for later battered.
11. Modern Defense. 1.e4 g6 2. d4 Gg7. description: Black strategy is to demolish and ransacked the middle of White-field.
12. Nimzo Indian defense. 1. d4 Kf6 2. c4 e6 3. Kc3 Gb4. description: Black let the White Elephant and got a pair of black officers in return grow faster and in different variations, pressing the White pawn piled in rows c as a target.
13. Nimzovich defense. 1. e4 Kc6. description: One more hypermodern styles. Black allowed White pawns forward in the center. The center-field so often closed.
14. Old Indian Defense. 1. d4 Kf6 2. c4 d6. caption: Defense Pawns are passive with similar composition but without fianseto Indian Elephant King King.
15. Petroff Defense. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kf6. description: Despite a reputation solit, this defense has the hope to strike back.
16. Philidor Defense. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 d6. description: Although quite solid, but Black men have difficulties in mobility.
17. Pirc Defense. 1. e4 d6 2. d4 Kf6 3. Kc3 g6. description: Black aimed at interfering with the center-field and then take advantage of the White Elephant fianseto.
18. Ponziani defense. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kc6 2. c3. description: White build a strong center-field.
19. Hidia Defense Minister. 1. d4 Kf6 2. c4 e6 3. Kf3 b6. description: Adults are considered the healthiest defense by the Masters.
20. Sililia defense. 1. e4 c5. description: Most popular Defense against e4. Through lanes c half-open, Black counterattack. In the game there was a lot of tactical blows dangerous.
21. Two Horses defense. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kc6 3. Gc4 Kf6. information: both parties are ready to play the fire, who will guard fatal.
1. Grob attack. 1.g4. description: The incredible surprise, but not much support the White House position.
2. Marshall attack. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kc6 3. Gb5 a6 4. Ga4 Kf6 5. 0-0 Ge7 6. Be1 b5 7. Gb3 0-0 8. c3 d5. description: the active resistance of the officers of the King Black and white well-liked all strikers.
3. Larsen attack. 1. b3. description: hypermodern style with fianseto White.
1. Opening Bird. 1. f4. description: The idea of the strategy, particularly control of e5, similar to the Dutch Defense.
2. Opening of the Elephant King. 1. e4 e5 2. Gc4. description: Efforts White Elephant plays the King in order to quickly suppress the black wings.
3. Opening the UK. 1. c4. Where: Opening popular that often transposition, has a complex battle position.
4. Opening of Four Horse. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kc6 3. Kc3 Kf6. description: a solid game if both parties do not attempt to dynamically
5. Reti Opening. 1. Kf3. description: hypermodern system that oversees the center-field from a distance. Characteristics is the slow maneuvering and playing as a chance to win a tempo Black.
6. Opening of Spanish / Ruy Lopez. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kc6 3. Gb5. description: The opening is very popular. White-field directly suppress the Black middle. The battle can lead to very sharp.
7. Opening of Scots. 1. e4 e5 2. Kc6 Kf3 d4. description: This opening is forcing Black and replies somewhat limited. White can control the game.
8. Opening of Three Horses. 1. e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kc6 3. Kc3. description: White Step fruit development only, does not give any problems for Black.
9. Opening of Vienna. 1. e4 e5 2. Kc3. description: White develops quietly, but still preparing f4 sharp.
10. Opening Benko. 1. g3. description: White hypermodern style with the theme of the defense fianseto reversed.
11. Catalan System. 1. d4 Kf6 2. c4 e6 3. g3. description: White to escape from the usual variation with the direction of development of the fruit that is more dynamic and hypermodern style join.
12. Colle System. 1. d4 d5 2. Kf3 Kf6 3. e3 c5 4. c3. description: a solid system with the aim of the strategy that is easily understood.
World Chess Championship
World Chess Championship is a competition held each year by the international chess organization FIDE to determine the World Champion of chess. Both men and women are entitled to participate in this championship. World Champion does not have a player with the highest Elo ranking: world champion in the period 2006-2007, Vladimir Kramnik was the third ranked player in the world.
Outside of this championship, there is also a separate championship for women only, Women's World Chess Championship, and competition as well as separate titles for junior, senior, and computers. However, participants were the strongest of all these other competitions, often through another championship is to directly follow the highest level of competition, the World Chess Championship, although they retained as part of chess tradition.
From 1886 until 1993 undisputed World Champion (Undisputed). Since 1993, when the champion (Garry Kasparov) broke away from FIDE and hence came the two champions parallel. In 2006, World Champion "Classical" Vladimir Kramnik (which earned its title through natural succession after defeating World Champion Garry Kasparov), and FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov (who won the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005), competed in the FIDE World Chess Championship 2006 in Kalmykia to determine the true world champion. Kramnik managed to win the championship and become the true World Champion.
Chaos (1993 - 2006)
Shortly after Kasparov won the Soviet Union collapsed, so Kasparov freed from the clutches of the Soviet state. This set the stage for a more lasting setback to the system when the 1993 FIDE, Kasparov and challenger Nigel Short complained of corruption and lack of professionalism within FIDE. As a result they broke away from FIDE and formed Professional Chess Association (the Association of Chess Professionals - PCA). They competed under the supervision of this organization. These events are mostly organized by Raymond Keene, who has long been at the center activities outside chess board. Keene brought this game to London (FIDE previously planned in Manchester), and England hit by chess fever: Channel Four broadcast about 81 games this program, the BBC also covered it, and Short appeared in beer commercials on television. Kasparov defeated Short by five points, and interest in chess in Britain was soon to fade.
FIDE is confronted by the split PCA, abolished the titles held a match between Kasparov and Karpov (champion prior to Kasparov) and was defeated by Short in the Candidates semi-finals) and Jan Timman (defeated by Short in the Candidates final) in the Netherlands and Jakarta, Indonesia. Karpov emerged as the winner.
Kasparov retained his PCA was against Viswanathan Anand in 1995, who achieved qualifications through a series of matches similar to the old FIDE system. It seems that the next challenger is Alexei Shirov, who won the match against Vladimir Kramnik to secure his place. However, the match with Shirov plan never materialized, and he then removed from the negotiations-negotiations, which made her feel upset. In contrast, Anand installed to re-match with Kasparov, but here's her plan fails (in a state that is not clear). By contrast, Vladimir Kramnik given the opportunity to fight Kasparov in 2000. In a very disappointing match, Kramnik won the match with two wins, 13 series and never lose.
Meanwhile, FIDE, after one more round of the traditional game that gave rise to Karpov as champion Gata Kamsky, who beat in 1996, generally has left the old system. Conversely, imposing FIDE knockout tournament in which a large number of players competing in a short match with each other in a few weeks. A very fast game used to break the deadlock in each round; format is perceived by most people fail to recognize the highest-quality game. Kasparov refused to participate in these matches. Similarly Kasparov Kramnik after winning in 2000. In the first of these matches, the champion Karpov seeded directly into the final (as in previous championships), but the next round of the champions have to qualify like other players. Karpov defended his title in the first championship in 1998, but he let go of her title because of anger over the new rules was in 1999. Alexander Khalifman this title in 1999, Anand in 2000, Ruslan Ponomariov and Rustam Kasimdzhanov in 2002 won this championship in 2004.
In 2002, there are not two rival champions, but Kasparov match results are robust - it has the highest ELO rating in the world and has won a series of major tournaments after losing his title in 2000 - causing even greater confusion about who the real champion of the World . Therefore in May 2002, the American grandmaster Yasser Seirawan led the organization of the so-called "Prague Agreement" to unify the world championship. Kramnik has organized a candidates tournament (won later in 2002 by Peter Leko) to choose a challenger. Therefore it was decided that Kasparov will play against FIDE champion (Ponomariov) for the title FIDE, and the winners of these two titles will compete for the title entity.
However, the match-funded game was tough and organized. Kramnik-Leko match, which is now known as the Classical World Chess Championship, a new place in late 2004 (a tie, so Kramnik defended his title). Meanwhile, FIDE never managed to organize the match Kasparov, both against 2002 FIDE champion Ponomariov, or 2004 FIDE jaura Kasimdzhanov. Part of the frustration with this situation, Kasparov retired from chess in 2005, while still ranked first in the world.
Soon after, FIDE abolished the knockout format flash of the World Championship event and announced the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005 with an 8 player tournament with a double round robin will be held in San Luis, Argentina. For the purpose of eliminating confusion about who is actually a true World Champion, FIDE would invite anyone who is eligible to participate or challenging for the title holder of that title - Kasparov as the world number 1 player from ELO ratings, Kramnik as the Classical world champion, Kasimdzhanov as world champion FIDE, Anand as the number one player behind Kasparov, and several other top players. However, both Kasparov (who retired) and Kramnik (who demand the traditional match format) declined their invitation to participate.
The dominant winner in the San Luis is Veselin Topalov of Bulgaria, and negotiations began for the match between Kramnik-Topalov to unify his title.
[Edit] New Era (2006 -?)
Reunification match between Topalov and Kramnik was held in late 2006. After much controversy, the game was won by Kramnik. (See the FIDE World Chess Championship 2006). So Kramnik became the first World Chess Champion is no doubt and is recognized by both bodies, after Kasparov left FIDE to form PCA in 1993.
Kramnik failed to defend his title at the FIDE World Chess Championship 2007 in Mexico. In a tournament that followed eight players with double round robin system, the same format as used for the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005, Kramnik only obtained the second position so that the title of undisputed world champion Viswanathan Anand crashed to, the undefeated throughout the tournament.